The Fundamentals Of Freeze Drying

Views: 10     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-08-24      Origin: Site

People used to transport ice down from a nearby mountain in the old days. Of course, we now store our food in electric freezers. Most fruits and certain vegetables lose their texture when frozen, while meats and fish hold up well. An industrial fish drying machine operates on the freeze-drying principle, which is a very gentle dehydration process used for preservation of high quality foods.


Let’s look at the history and market for this technology.


Invented To Preserve Blood!


In 1906, Jacques-Arsene d'Arsonval of the College of France in Paris pioneered freeze-drying. It was frequently used to preserve blood serum later, during World War II. Since then, freeze-drying has grown in importance as a method of preserving heat-sensitive biological materials. Industrial freeze-drying of foods began in the 1950s. Freeze-drying is being used to preserve foods, pharmaceuticals, and in a variety of other industries.


The Basic Science

There are 3 stages in a sea food drying machine’s operation:
1) Freezing
2) Sublimation
3) Drying & desorption drying.


In the entire freeze-drying process, the freezing phase is the most crucial. It's critical to quickly freeze foods in order to avoid the formation of huge ice crystals. This ice formation degrades the final product's quality. During the initial drying phase, nearly 95% of the water in the food is removed. The use of too much heat during this step may reduce the final product's quality.


Sublimation consumes around 45 percent of the total energy used in the process. The moisture content of the final freeze-dried food is usually between 1% and 4%.


Commercial Applications in Food Processing


Some foods freeze-dry exceptionally well, however not all foods are freeze-dryable. Coffee, fruit, juice, vegetables, herbs, food flavourings, fish, seafood, eggs, and dairy are all regularly freeze-dried. Individual foods, as well as recipes with several ingredients, such as stews or soups, can be freeze-dried.


As a result, freeze-dried food items are appropriate for backpacking, camping, military rations, food storage, and space exploration. Larger goods (such as fruit or meat) should usually be sliced into smaller pieces before freeze-drying. Freeze-drying is a suitable option for thermally sensitive commodities like fruits. Cooking is required before entering meat and seafood into seafood drying equipment. Snacks and ingredients in other foods, such as breakfast cereals, have become popular.


Advantages Vs Disadvantage

When compared to other methods of dehydration, freeze-dried foods have a higher overall quality. The lack of a liquid phase, as well as the low temperature of the process, contribute to the high quality. Freeze-drying preserves the flavour, colour, and appearance of the food while reducing thermal damage to heat-sensitive nutrients. Furthermore, because the process occurs in a solid form, the texture is well retained. Freeze-dried foods are often crisper and have four to six times higher rehydration ratios than air-dried foods. The excellent recovery of volatiles, the retention of structure and surface area, the high yield, the long shelf life, and the reduced weight for storage, shipping, and handling are all advantages of freeze-drying.


Freeze-drying has the disadvantage of being expensive due to its high energy consumption and high operating and maintenance costs. Freeze-drying requires nearly double the amount of energy as traditional air drying. As a result, the method is only cost-effective for high-value food items.


The Market

According to Mordor Intelligence, the global freeze-dried food market is increasing at 7.4% per year, with the US market estimated to reach $66.5 billion by the end of 2021. The fastest-growing markets are in South America and Asia-Pacific.


The expense of freeze-drying remains the most significant impediment to wider commercial adoption of commercial fish drying machines. This is likely to be the focus of future advancement of this remarkable technology.


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